Posts

“Rural migration in sub-Saharan Africa: patterns, drivers and relation to structural transformation”, FAO Rural employment working paper

GovInn is pleased to share the new FAO working paper “Rural migration in sub-Saharan Africa: patterns, drivers and relation to structural transformation” which was published at the end of 2019 but only posted recently on the FAO website. GovInners were deeply involved in its preparation with Sara Mercandalli and Bruno Losch as editors, as well as Chris Nshimbi and Robin Bourgeois.

The paper provides an up-to-date review of the literature on the patterns and drivers of rural migration in sub-Saharan Africa and explores their relation to rural and structural transformation. It aims at feeding the current policy debate on migration.

This working paper is a companion of the FAO-CIRAD Atlas “Rural Africa in motion – Dynamics and drivers of migration South of the Sahara”, published in English at the end of 2017 and in French mid-2018. GovInn had been deeply involved in its preparation. The atlas was launched in South Africa during the GovInn Week 2017.

Based on a mixed approach that combines a critical literature review of past, current and future drivers of migration and analyses of available data, the paper first elaborates a pluri-disciplinary and comprehensive conceptual framework for the understanding of the drivers and patterns of rural migration. It then examines the evolving patterns of African rural migration and presents renewed migration characteristics, which have emerged over the last decades. It reveals that migration is performing a range of socio-economic functions far beyond the only transfer of labour from agriculture to other sectors and from rural-to-urban areas. As such, migration processes highlight possible new structural transformation paths, responding to existing challenges faced by the region in terms of demographic and economic transition. The paper finally discusses the characteristics and dynamics of the drivers using existing datasets and case studies. It highlights the diverse and multifaceted nature of the drivers of rural migration and the way they act in combination to shape African rural migration dynamics today and their links to contemporary regional and sectoral processes of change.

 

You can access the full working paper here.

“EU-Africa Migration Conundrum in a Changing Global Order”, 3-5 September 2018

At the beginning of September, from the 3rd to the 5th, the Centre for the Study of Governance Innovation hosted a two day workshop and one day conference that focused on migration and human mobility with Africa and the European Union, and between the two regions. The event was hosted by GovInn Director, Dr Chris Nshimbi, and enjoyed input from a number of academics, practitioners and students, focused on the trends, impacts and future of migration in and between these regions.

Below are some pictures from the three days of engagement and dialogue.

‘Repatriating migrants misses the point. Systemic issues need to be tackled’, by Chris Nshimbi on Power 98.7

GovInn’s Co-Director Chris Nshimbi talked to Power 98.7 about ‘Repatriating migrants misses the point. Systemic issues need to be tackled’.

 

Listen to the full interview here:  https://soundcloud.com/powerfm987/chris-changwe-nshimbi_repatriating-migrants-misses-the-point-systemic-issues-need-to-be-tackled

 

‘The Repatriation of African Migrants’, By Chris Nshimbi on The Voice of the Cape,

GovInn’s Co-Director Chris Nshimbi talked to The Voice of the Cape on the Repatriation of African Migrants.

The December 2017 European Union-African Summit drew up an emergency plan to repatriate scores of African migrants held captive in Libya, and the crackdown on the people smugglers. On the face of it, the decision to repatriate the migrants is a welcome pragmatic intervention, but it fails to consider the fundamental causes of human flight from Africa. Drive Time spoke to Christopher Changwe Nshimbi, Deputy Director, Centre for the Study of Governance Innovation, Department of Political Science, University of Pretoria.

Listen to the full interview herehttps://iono.fm/e/533936

 

Repatriating migrants misses the point. Systemic issues need to be tackled

In his latest Op-Ed in The Conversation, GovInn Deputy Director Chris Nshimbi says the decision to repatriate the migrants in precarious condition from Libya is a welcome pragmatic intervention that fails to consider the fundamental causes of human flight from Africa. Since the adoption of the plan, over 3,000 migrants have been repatriated to Gambia, Cameroon, Nigeria, Ivory Coast. The number falls short of the targeted 20,000 the AU wished to return within six weeks of adopting the plan.

Read the full article here: https://theconversation.com/repatriating-migrants-misses-the-point-systemic-issues-need-to-be-tackled-88809

Regional governance regimes to foster labour mobility and development

GovInn Deputy Director, Chris Nshimbi, contributed an article on regional governance regimes and labour mobility in Africa in the latest issue of the ECDPM‘s Great Insights magazine.

Most international migration in Africa is intracontinental, essentially occurring between proximate states in the same regional bloc. It is mixed, but semi-skilled and unskilled labour migration, and mobility involving informal cross-border traders and service providers merit special attention.

Read the full article here: http://ecdpm.org/great-insights/migration-moving-backward-moving-forward/regional-governance-development-africa/

ATLAS ‘Rural Africa in motion. Dynamics and drivers of migration South of the Sahara’ by CIRAD, FAO & GovInn, 02.11.2017

The Centre for the Study of Governance Innovation, FAO & CIRAD launched the first atlas on rural migration in sub-Saharan Africa in Rome, Italy.

Through a series of maps and in-depth case studies, the 20 authors of the atlas, representing different research institutions, think tanks and international organizations from and outside Africa, explore the complexity of the interrelated causes that drive people in Africa to leave their homes. They shed light on regional migration dynamics and perspectives and foster understanding of rural migration.

 

More information about the launch can be found here.
The atlas can be downloaded here. 

‘Informal Immigrant Traders in Johannesburg: The Scorned Cornerstone in the Southern African Development Community Integration Project’ by Chris Nshimbi, 21.11.2017

GovInn’s Co-Director Chris Nshimbi published the book chapter ‘Informal Immigrant Traders in Johannesburg: The Scorned Cornerstone in the Southern African Development Community Integration Project‘ together with Inocent Moyo in Africa Now!.

Taking the case of informal cross-border traders from Southern Africa in Johannesburg, human mobility is discussed as one of four productive factors that are key to regional integration. Employing three levels of analysis—regional, national and local—discussion is confined to economically active persons. Key Southern African Development Community (SADC) instruments relating to human mobility are also discussed. Existing and corresponding national and local legislation, by-laws, policies and practices are investigated to highlight the extent to which SADC members implement regional instruments. Using in-depth interviews with informal cross-border traders in Johannesburg from SADC countries, the findings show the absence of supportive legal-institutional regulatory regimes to promote the activities of immigrant traders. This demonstrates that an important element in the SADC integration project is unwelcome or ignored.

 

Please find the full chapter here: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-62443-3_17

‘Of Borders and Fortresses: Attitudes Towards Immigrants from the SADC Region in South Africa as a Critical Factor in the Integration of Southern Africa’, by Chris Nshimbi and Inocent Moyo, 22.11.2017

GovInn’s Co-Director Chris Nshimbi published together with Inocent Moyo the article ‘Of Borders and Fortresses: Attitudes Towards Immigrants from the SADC Region in South Africa as a Critical Factor in the Integration of Southern Africa‘ in the Journal of Borderlands Studies.

South Africa attracts migrants from other parts of Africa, Asia, Europe, Australia and the Americas. However, the immigration debate within the country apparently revolves around immigrants from the other parts of Africa, including the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region, and projects them as undesirable in a way best interpreted as discriminatory and exclusionary. This paper argues that this, coupled with South Africa’s immigration legislation, policies and practices amounts to forms of bordering and exclusion that starkly contradict the country and its neighbor’s aspirations for a regionally integrated Southern Africa. As one of the few SADC member states that have ratified the 2005 Draft Protocol on the Facilitation of Movement of Persons in the SADC, immigrants and cross-border movers from the SADC region ought to be treated well in South Africa. Not doing so militates against the goal of an integrated Southern Africa and the commitments South Africa has made to the continental agenda of establishing an African Economic Community.

Read the whole article here: http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/GGgSkyGkFFPiwbDV2X7C/full

‘The Human Side of Regions: Informal Cross-border Traders in the Zambia–Malawi–Mozambique Growth Triangle and Prospects for Integrating Southern Africa’, by Chris Nshimbi, 23.10.2017

GovInn’s Co-Director Chris Nshimbi published the article ‘The Human Side of Regions: Informal Cross-border Traders in the Zambia–Malawi–Mozambique Growth Triangle and Prospects for Integrating Southern Africa‘ in the Journal of Borderlands Studies.

This paper examines the activities of informal cross-border traders (ICBTs) in the contiguous borderlands of Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique, in order to determine the replicability and feasibility of the growth triangle phenomenon, which was imported as a concept for economic development from Southeast Asia. It also seeks to establish whether ICBTs can satisfy their economic needs from cross-border trade. Apart from the thorough review of relevant literature, participant observations, face-to-face interviews and focus group discussions were deployed to collect the data for the analysis contained in the paper. Primary data from the fieldwork conducted at various locations in the borderlands is qualitatively and statistically analyzed. ICBTs in these areas include affiliates of traders’ associations and non-affiliates. The contiguous borderlands of the three countries comprise a young population of ICBTs with low incomes who have spent relatively few years in cross-border trade. ICBTs who have been longer in the informal trade business have graduated into formal traders. ICBT activities highlight their contribution to regional integration, from the bottom up. Informal cross-border trade provides employment and livelihoods, placing ICBTs outside extremely poor populations living below USD$1.25 per day. ICBTs also have innovative informal ways of accessing credit based on personal interactions and shared experiences with suppliers of goods. Legally establishing the growth triangle creates an environment that ICBTs exploit in order to satisfy their economic needs, especially with government facilitation.

Read the full article here http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/hshZedXfiiF9ytTf5dzm/full